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Karen's Keys to Genealogy:
Family DNA

The chart below shows the Y-DNA of male lines and the mitochondrial DNA of female lines in the ancestry of Karen Schlussel.

The codes displayed represent identified haplogroups. For further information on each, please see the notes below the chart.

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Note #1 — J-PF5456

  • J2 - Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen at least 10-15,000 years ago in the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Haplogroup J2 is found in the highest concentrations in the Fertile Crescent (modern day Middle East) and is found throughout the Mediterranean (including Southern Europe and North Africa, and the Balkan peninsula.

Note #2 — R0a2m

  • Haplogroup R0 occurs frequently in the Arabian Plate with its highest frequency in Socotri, Yemen. It is also found in a high frequency in Kalash, Pakistan, and in a smaller frequency in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Anatolia, the Iranian Plateau and Dalmatia. Its greater variety in the Arabian Plate suggests R0a originated in and spread from there.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R0_(mtDNA)

Note #3 — G2a3b

  • The National Geographic Society places haplogroup G origins in the Middle East 10-20,000 years ago and presumes that people carrying the haplogroup took part in the spread of the Neolithic Era (the last part of the Stone Age).
  • The G2a3b haplogroup has been found in males with British Isles, Sicilian and Turkish ancestry.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G_(Y-DNA)

Note #4 — H7c2

  • Several independent studies conclude that haplogroup H probably evolved in West Asia about 30,000 years ago having arrived in Europe about 20-25,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the southwest of the continent.
  • Subhaplogroup H7 is present in both Europe and West Asia and is quite rare.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_H_(mtDNA)

Note #5 — E-M84

  • E1b1b1c (E-M123) is also quite common among both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, accounting for over 10% of all male lines.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E1b1b1

Note #6 — EM35.1

  • E1b1b1 (E-M35) is defined by the M35 SNP. E-M35 includes individuals with the "ancestral state" (no known sub-clade forming mutations). These are referred to as E1b1b1* or E-M35*.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E1b1b1

Note #7 — K

  • It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8, and it has an estimated age of c. 12,000 years BP. Haplogroup K appears in West Eurasia, North Africa, and South Asia and in populations with such an ancestry.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_K_(mtDNA)

Note #8 — H1e4a

  • H1 is the most common branch of haplogroup H. It most likely originated 15-20,000 years ago and represents 30% of people in haplogroup H and 46% of the maternal lineages in Iberia. It can also be found at significant frequency in the Near East and some Middle Eastern populations. 13-14% of all Europeans belong to this branch.
  • For further information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_H_(mtDNA)

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Created 1 Jan 2011; Revised 12 Jun 2015

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